Android’s Penetration Vs. Apple’s Skimming Marketing Strategies
Technology pundits and press, alike, seem obsessed with market share. But obtaining large market share is just one of many successful business strategies. Android follows a penetration pricing strategy. Apple uses a skimming strategy. Neither is inherently superior to the other. Like any strategy, each has advantages and disadvantages and their ultimate success often depends upon both circumstances and execution.
Penetration pricing occurs when a company launches a low-priced product with the goal of securing market share. For example, a sponge manufacturer might use a penetration pricing strategy to lure customers from current competitors and to discourage new competitors from entering the industry. If the sponge’s price is low enough, consumers will flock to the new product. Competitors who can’t produce and promote sponges for such a small profit will avoid the market, freeing the sponge company to maximize brand recognition and goodwill. ~ Stan Mack, Demand Media
A price skimming strategy focuses on maximizing profits by charging a high price for early adopters of a new product, then gradually lowering the price to attract thriftier consumers. For example, a cell phone company might launch a new product with an initial high price, capitalizing on some people’s willingness to pay a premium for cutting-edge technology. When sales to that group slow or competitors emerge, the company progressively lowers its price, skimming each layer of the market until the low price wins over even frugal buyers. ~ Stan Mack, Demand Media
Apple has added a twist to the skimming strategy. Rather than introducing their products at a high price and then lowering their prices later, Apple stakes out a price and then maintains and defends that price by significantly increasing the value of their products in future iterations.
For example, over the past six years, the average sales price of the iPhone has remained remarkably stable with the subsidized price remaining at ~$200 and the unsubsidized price hovering around $650.
Advantages and Disadvantages Of Price Skimming
Price skimming offers four major advantages…. It can offer insight into what consumers are willing to pay. It can create an aura of prestige around your product. If the initial price is too high, you can lower it easily. Finally, late adopters might be pleased to get your prestigious product at a bargain price, which creates goodwill for your company. A major disadvantage, however, is that large profits attract competitors, so this price strategy only works well for businesses that have a significant competitive advantage, such as proprietary technology.
The argument against Apple’s price skimming strategy is that the competition has caught up with the iPhone and Apple is no longer able to compete unless they lower their prices. But do the facts support this argument?
First, the iPhone has received 8 (EDIT: make that 9, as of March 21, 2013) straight J.D. Power and Associates awards for customer satisfaction and Apple reported that four times as many iPhone users switched from an Android phone than to an Android phone in the fourth quarter of 2012. Clearly Apple’s cachet is not on the wane, at least not in the minds of phone buying consumers.
Second, in 2012, Apple garnered 69% of all mobile phone profits. Further, they did it with only 8% of the total market share. That means that the remaining 92% of the market provided only 31% of the sector’s total profits. That’s price skimming at its finest.
The current meme is that Apple MUST abandon their skimming strategy and pursue a price penetration strategy instead. However, the facts simply do not support this contention. Apple could, of course, “buy” more market share simply by lowering their prices, but this has two major disadvantages. First, the market share that they would be buying is worth far less than the market share that they already own. Second, a lower price would lead to lower profits as well. It is obvious – or rather it SHOULD be obvious – that this could be counter-productive.
There’s nothing wrong with market share and I’m quite certain that Apple would be more than happy to expand their market share – but not at any price. For example, Apple has some 70% market share in iPods and around 50% market share in iPads. Yet they are doing this while still maintaining their price skimming strategy.
Price skimming is neither the only strategy nor is it the only superior strategy. It is just one of many marketing strategies. However, Apple is executing the strategy of price skimming brilliantly…even if Wall Street and the pundits stubbornly refuse to acknowledge it.