Hits, No Errors: The Secret of Mobile Success

Steve Wildstrom / December 11th, 2013

 

fatal-error-no-error

When Jeff Hawkins was designing the original Palm Pilot, he had a simple rule for his team. If a feature was generating error messages, it either got fixed fast or it was removed.  The Palm user experience was designed to be error free.1

The Palm was designed to do just a few things, but do them very well. Unlike just about every other high tech device of its era, it almost never threw error messages. And nearly 20 years later, I still believe this commitment to user experience helped Palm successfully create the category that eventually became today’s smartphones.

A great deal has been written about the reasons of the consumer success of today’s tablets, particularly the iPad, at the expense of traditional PCs. Of course, there are the obvious factors of their ultra-portability, relatively low price, and the availability of a plethora of clever apps that are either free or very inexpensive. But I think the is another, at least equally important factor: Tablets, to steal a phrase, just work. They don’t offer a lot of complexity. They don’t scare or confuse users with incomprehensible and vague threatening error messages.

Things have gotten better from the days when Mac and Window users frequently saw messages like these:

errorsBut after 30-plus years of dealing with these things, I still see Windows and OS X error messages that I do not understand. An example: when editing a complex document in Word 2011 (Mac), it is not unusual, after a lot of changes have been made, to get a message saying that Word has run out of room to store the document. Since I am working on a system with 12 gigabytes of physical memory and an all but unlimited amount of virtual memory, something other than the stated cause is behind the message. And I’ve learned that the correct response is to close and reopen the document. Despite the message, it always saves correctly. But why should I have to put up with this? And on a tablet, I don’t.

Features, not bugs. The iPad is the leader in tablet simplicity. A number of design decisions, for which Apple has been roundly criticized by those who dislike the locked-down nature of iOS, contribute to the iPad’s error-free nature. There’s no USB port, no installable device drivers, no user-accessible file system, no direct way to print to standard printers, no way to install apps not approved by Apple, very limited communication between apps, which run in a sandbox. This Apple-knows-best approach to software design has eliminated a large number of ways that things can go wrong and cause baffling errors. (In the early days of Mac and Windows, a common source of crashes was one program overwriting another’s memory. Throughout the history of Windows, error analysis has shown that the overwhelming majority of application and system crashes were generated by installable device drivers.)

A number of design decisions, for which Apple has been roundly criticized by those who dislike the locked-down nature of iOS, contribute to the iPad’s error-free nature.

This is not to say that apps and even the OS in tablets never crash. But they do it quietly and gracefully, without generating an error message or requiring any action. When an iOS or Android app crashes, it usually just quietly shuts down and restarts itself, generally without loss of data and without affecting any other running apps. Even a system crash, rare in my experience causes a reboot in which the tablet mostly or completely restores its pre-crash state.

App updates are another place where tablets shine. Both Android and iOS automatically install app updates in the background. By contrast, as I was working on my Mac today, a Window popped up informing me that skyDrive needed to be updated. I gave permission for the update, which then proceeded to open at least six more windows–I lost count–each of which required some action on my part. If the software needs updating, just go ahead an update it (the auto-update feature can be disabled on both Android and iOS, but I doubt that many users do.)

Good behavior. I think the geekiest among us underestimate how important this well-mannered behavior is to a lot of users. Especially folks who write code are used to complex and hard-to-diagnose errors and consider them part of a day’s work. The Mac system bomb was always a bit of a joke, though on some particularly nasty versions of Mac OS, it was rare to get through a day without seeing it at least once. But I remember people who became genuinely upset after getting that Windows “illegal operation” message, believing they had sone something seriously wrong. Microsoft made matters worse by sometimes including a “Continue” button in the dialog box that invariably did nothing when clicked.

People like tablets because they don’t behave this way. They just do what you want them to do. And both system requirements, UI limitations, and the prevailing ethos of app design cause developers to write apps that only do one thing, and more often than not, do it well.

Windows struggles. This may be one reasons why Windows tablets struggle so badly. Metro-style apps, for the most part, behave like tablet apps should. But there is still Windows underlying the whole thing and the ability to run any (Windows 8) or a few (Windows RT) legacy Windows apps makes the tablets prone to all the ills that Windows is heir to.

I sometimes chafe at the restrictions imposed on the iPad (and to a lesser extent, Android tablets) compared to a traditional PC. I would love for it to be easier to print, easier to share files among apps, easier to load content. But when I think about what I have gained by giving a few things up, a realize it is a trade I would make again in a second. I love the power that a traditional PC gives me when I need it, but I value the simplicity a tablet offers when I don’t.

  1. Here’s a note Hawkins wrote explaining his design philosophy in response to a 1998 column of mine in BusinessWeek. []

Steve Wildstrom

Steve Wildstrom is veteran technology reporter, writer, and analyst based in the Washington, D.C. area. He created and wrote BusinessWeek’s Technology & You column for 15 years. Since leaving BusinessWeek in the fall of 2009, he has written his own blog, Wildstrom on Tech and has contributed to corporate blogs, including those of Cisco and AMD and also consults for major technology companies.
  • arro

    If Microsoft ever made a garbage disposer it would run Windows.

    • pk_de_cville

      ; )

  • FalKirk

    Good article, Steve. Enjoyed it and I’m pretty sure I’m going to link to it my article for tomorrow.

  • ThierryL

    Amen! Long live the curated AppStore model, the end of piracy and the iTunes media model. Next is the durability factor, will tablets last 10 years? I have no plan to change my iPad 1, it does what ask, except that I probably will restore OS 4 if I can, to speed it up. If tablets can last 10 years then it’s game over for the low-end PC. They have no moving parts, low voltage, so why not? You should give Apple more credit for caring more than the other guys about error messages.

    • Glaurung-Quena

      “If tablets can last 10 years then it’s game over for the low-end PC”

      Aside from software issues, the main thing keeping tablets from being a durable good is the way their batteries degrade over time. Apple rates ipad batteries for 1000 full charge-discharge cycles, after which the battery will only last for 8 hours instead of 10. So if you use it for 3-ish hours a day (needing to recharge every third day), the battery will be starting to go after 9 years. Close enough.

      The real problem is software – every year the proportion of apps that won’t run on an original ipad or on an ipad 2 (mostly because of limited RAM on those models) will become greater and greater. Sure, if the battery doesn’t give out that original ipad will last a really long time, but the inability to run the latest versions of apps on it will bite more and more every year.

  • TheEternalEmperor

    “Especially folks who write code are used to complex and hard-to-diagnose errors and consider them part of a day’s work.”

    I write code for a living. Those messages suck. Personally, I consider that the awful whenever it happens. I try very hard, but don’ always succeed, in providing useful error messages.

    • steve_wildstrom

      I think there are two issues that I did not separate very well.

      There’s really no excuse for bad error messages that the user won’t understand. Sometimes, they are the result of developer laziness; many developers are as fond of writing good error messages as they are of writing documentation, Sometimes they are just mistakes: There are always going to be untrapped errors, and they almost always produce messages incomprehensible to anyone but a developer.

      But I was really talking about the desirability of reducing, ideally eliminating, the events to produce error messages. This is much harder and often forces a tradeoff with functionality.

      My point was that the people who write code are a lot more tolerant of error messages than most users. No one gets all their code right on the first try, and dealing with error messages, whether compiler or runtime, are part of a day’s work for a developer. You come to see error messages as a normal part of the workflow, and it’s often not easy to see things the way a non-developer user does.

      • TheEternalEmperor

        Agreed. We don’t have much of a choice with a given library or “ntdll.dll, it can be anything crash”, but it does seem to give you a kind of callous when error message do appear.

        “Shrug. What are you gonna do?”

        I do agree with your main premise. After spending all day on my dev system working, I find using my iPad almost…soothing in its behavior. What you said about an app crash is dead on. It blinks and the system is back up with no issues. The iPad is a device that someone hardcore like me can appreciate and use, yet I can hand it to my five year old and she can use it also.

  • Mauryan

    If Apple had chosen not to allow third party apps in their mobile devices, they wouldn’t have come this far. Steve Jobs initially did not like the idea of apps. It is the independent apps that have opened up a new avenue in the software industry, triggering creativity, helping small companies and even individuals to thrive. And Apple has done a good job of controlling all of it through its iTunes eco-system. if Android or Windows catches up with Apple in the app development area and go beyond what Apple is doing with more flexibility and pricing, it would be an interesting thing to watch.

  • Unlike just about every other high tech device of its error”

    I’m guessing that should be “era”…?

    Oh, and please reconsider your site’s shitty Javascript that hijacks the cut-and-paste operation with unwanted URLs tacked on the end. That’s the kind of stunt that makes me block all Javascript on a site, including ads. Just saying.

    • steve_wildstrom

      Thanks, fixed.

      • TheEternalEmperor

        Without the potty mouth, I have to agree with the sentiment about the copy and paste. I was trying to just quote a piece of the article for a response and got that URL.

        Is that really necessary?

        • Oh, c’mon! Potty mouth? 🙂

          Anyway, something like that is user hostile and unbecoming of a site like Techpinions, so I see no reason to disguise my feelings on the matter.

  • Bhaskar

    hi Steve, just wanted to mention Mavericks has update facility during sleep as well as on the background. This is why Apple is still a pioneer when it comes to right implemention and we all love it. cheers! http://www.apple.com/osx/whats-new/features.html

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