Clipper chip

It’s Scary: Government’s Fight Against Encryption

Cameron-ObamaMost governments’ reaction to the terrorist attack on Charlie Hebdo and a kosher market in Paris seemed sensible. The major exception was a pledge by Prime Minister David Cameron to shut down encryption on messages in the U.K. No better is the push on President Obama to follow the mission. One reason for limited reaction in the U.S. is the lack of memory of the last U.S. fight in the 1990s.

The latest encryption brawl is a bit mysterious since if the police know something about the Paris attackers using encrypted messages they have not shared the knowledge. Instead, Cameron rolled out a promise to restrict encryption he made in his re-election campaign last year. Obama seems to base his position on friendship with Cameron and support for restrictions made last year by FBI Director James Comey.

The British technique would prohibit encryption of communications, likely to cover fast growing chat programs including Google Message, WhatsApp, Apple iMessage and FaceTime. These apps are designed so, unlike most email, messages are encrypted end-to-end by participants and cannot be read even with a warrant. The change would require providers install a mechanism for decrypting the messages as they pass through their equipment. (Good detail on the proposal is written by BoingBoing’s Corey Doctorow.)

Confused cooperation. The U.S. position as of the moment is confusing. The White House issued a “Fact Sheet: U.S.-United Kingdom Cybersecurity” but was only clear in endorsing a broad framework, neither including nor denying the anti-encryption moves proposed by the U.K. (adding to the problem, the links to the U.S. and U.K. documents in the fact sheet don’t link to anything). So we are working with the U.K., but it’s unclear on what. The FBI supports cutting in on encryption, assuming it sticks with the statement of Director Comey: “Encryption is nothing new. But the challenge to law enforcement and national security officials is markedly worse, with recent default encryption settings and encrypted devices and networks—all designed to increase security and privacy.”

In any event, both Obama and Cameron should look back on the 1990s encryption fiasco. Back then, commercial internet communications were just beginning to take off. There was growing pressure for law enforcement to prevent criminals and terrorists–yes, even then–from transmitting secret information in encrypted messages. Then-Senator Joe Biden was the sponsor of the Comprehensive Anti-Terrorism Act of 1991, which would have limited the use of encryption. (( Thanks to Declan McCullagh for pointing this out. ))

Clipper chipThe National Security Agency came up with a scheme called Skipjack, better remembered by its implementation on a chip called Clipper (left). The program would have made available two encryption codes — the regular code for users and an encrypted “escrow” code available to law enforcement. The Clinton administration fiercely supported the plan, with the effort led by Vice President Al Gore (although the effort got started under President George H.W. Bush, it really got rolling under Bill Clinton). The proposal set off a spirited argument between the technology industry and privacy and secrecy advocates on one side and the Clinton Administration, the NSA, and the FBI on the other.

The death of Clipper. Skipjack/Clipper was finally done in by the fact it just plain didn’t work. The flaw was the Law Enforcement Access Field, part of the key that gave officials access to to the encryption data. Matt Blaze, a security scientist at AT&T Research (now at the University of Pennsylvania), published a paper, “Protocol Failure in the Escrowed Encryption Standard”, but the technology it explained became generally known as the “LEAF Blower.” Nothing in a situation like this is more quickly lethal than ridicule; LEAF Blower killed Skipjack/Clipper.

Details of how the government would be able to access classified messages has yet to come out, but the history of Skipjack/Clipper reveals how difficult it is to get it right. Skipjack developers at NSA had worked for years but never realized the flaw. Furthermore, many of the cryptographic plans toughened by Apple, Google, and other message providers were installed after the collection of information was revealed in the data Edward Snowden released from the NSA. Getting their cooperation this time will be very difficult.

This is almost certainly a factor in the U.S. resistance to go as far as the U.K. wants. But Obama is under considerable pressure from Cameron. The Guardian reports the prime minister is working hard to convince Obama to go along. According to the paper, a British government source said: “The prime minister’s objective here is to get the U.S. companies to cooperate with us more, to make sure that our intelligence agencies get the information they need to keep us safe. That will be his approach in the discussion with President Obama – how can we work together to get them to cooperate more, what is the best approach to encourage them to do more.”

This fight is a long way from being over. So far, the opposition is left mainly to the companies trying to protect their information, but it’s a good time for the rest of the industry to get involved.

Published by

Steve Wildstrom

Steve Wildstrom is veteran technology reporter, writer, and analyst based in the Washington, D.C. area. He created and wrote BusinessWeek’s Technology & You column for 15 years. Since leaving BusinessWeek in the fall of 2009, he has written his own blog, Wildstrom on Tech and has contributed to corporate blogs, including those of Cisco and AMD and also consults for major technology companies.

4,247 thoughts on “It’s Scary: Government’s Fight Against Encryption”

  1. Traditionally wire taps were allowed with possession of a court issued warrant. It was not something that was taken lightly. Since the Patriot Act, that faith has been breached. If a backdoor can be included., with a guarantee of preservation of privacy, unless there’s a court-issued warrant, then I have far less of a problem with that.

    Privacy is protected by the fourth amendment guarding against illegal search and seizure. What’s required is a standard of legality at least to the level where it was.

      1. I can’t disagree with you, but simply having to go through the procedure would force a prioritization to reasonable suspects. It’s probably that way right now anyway.

        Still, democracy is not something I take lightly. If what you fear is what would happen, it exposes a tyranny.

  2. It will never work. I’m all for security and have no problem with the NSA attempting to hack into any and all systems to do this (That is their job afterall). But, for the government to mandate private companies install a backdoor is foolish. The internet is a big place and the terrorist would simply find another, encrypted, likely foreign system, which is not subject to the rules in the US and UK to transmit their messages.

  3. Thanks for addressing this.

    The problem with the National Security Trump Card is: once played, we will never know for sure whether or not a company has been compelled to cooperate. The companies will not be permitted to say one way or the other. The court system won’t assist, because National Security trumps every individual right.

    Viva la Whistleblower.

  4. Çelik konstrüksiyon yangın merdiveni için ulaştığımız Merter Mühendislik firması gayet ekonomik ve statik açıdan dayanıklı proje çiziminden dolayı çok teşekkür ederiz.

  5. This is really interesting, You’re a very skilled blogger. I’ve joined your feed and look forward to seeking more of your magnificent post. Also, I’ve shared your site in my social networks!

  6. Hello. Are You There ??. We Are Provider of Telegram Real Active Members, Youtube Real Subscribers, Views, NFT Twitter Followers. Many Many More Real Services. Which Boost Your Business.

  7. naturally like your web site however you need to take a look at the spelling on several of your posts. A number of them are rife with spelling problems and I find it very bothersome to tell the truth on the other hand I will surely come again again.

  8. If you attempt to aspect that farfar from the content material and contex then you definitely would possibly as properly locate them in Ceres California and do what comes natural.

  9. This is really interesting, You’re a very skilled blogger. I’ve joined your feed and look forward to seeking more of your magnificent post. Also, I’ve shared your site in my social networks!

  10. This is really interesting, You’re a very skilled blogger. I’ve joined your feed and look forward to seeking more of your magnificent post. Also, I’ve shared your site in my social networks!

  11. You’re so awesome! I don’t believe I have read a single thing like that before. So great to find someone with some original thoughts on this topic. Really.. thank you for starting this up. This website is something that is needed on the internet, someone with a little originality!

  12. Hi there to all, for the reason that I am genuinely keen of reading this website’s post to be updated on a regular basis. It carries pleasant stuff.

  13. I’m often to blogging and i really appreciate your content. The article has actually peaks my interest. I’m going to bookmark your web site and maintain checking for brand spanking new information.

  14. naturally like your web site however you need to take a look at the spelling on several of your posts. A number of them are rife with spelling problems and I find it very bothersome to tell the truth on the other hand I will surely come again again.

  15. Hi there to all, for the reason that I am genuinely keen of reading this website’s post to be updated on a regular basis. It carries pleasant stuff.

  16. I’m often to blogging and i really appreciate your content. The article has actually peaks my interest. I’m going to bookmark your web site and maintain checking for brand spanking new information.

  17. Tüm ambalaj ürünleriniz fibertedarik.com adresinde. Kraft çanta, karton bardak, plastik bardak, çorba kasesi, patates kutusu, burger kutusu ve daha bir çok ürün ile hizmetinizdeyiz.

  18. I’m often to blogging and i really appreciate your content. The article has actually peaks my interest. I’m going to bookmark your web site and maintain checking for brand spanking new information.

  19. I’m often to blogging and i really appreciate your content. The article has actually peaks my interest. I’m going to bookmark your web site and maintain checking for brand spanking new information.

  20. This is really interesting, You’re a very skilled blogger. I’ve joined your feed and look forward to seeking more of your magnificent post. Also, I’ve shared your site in my social networks!

  21. naturally like your web site however you need to take a look at the spelling on several of your posts. A number of them are rife with spelling problems and I find it very bothersome to tell the truth on the other hand I will surely come again again.

  22. naturally like your web site however you need to take a look at the spelling on several of your posts. A number of them are rife with spelling problems and I find it very bothersome to tell the truth on the other hand I will surely come again again.

  23. You’re so awesome! I don’t believe I have read a single thing like that before. So great to find someone with some original thoughts on this topic. Really.. thank you for starting this up. This website is something that is needed on the internet, someone with a little originality!

  24. I’m often to blogging and i really appreciate your content. The article has actually peaks my interest. I’m going to bookmark your web site and maintain checking for brand spanking new information.

  25. This is really interesting, You’re a very skilled blogger. I’ve joined your feed and look forward to seeking more of your magnificent post. Also, I’ve shared your site in my social networks!

  26. I’m often to blogging and i really appreciate your content. The article has actually peaks my interest. I’m going to bookmark your web site and maintain checking for brand spanking new information.

  27. This is really interesting, You’re a very skilled blogger. I’ve joined your feed and look forward to seeking more of your magnificent post. Also, I’ve shared your site in my social networks!

  28. naturally like your web site however you need to take a look at the spelling on several of your posts. A number of them are rife with spelling problems and I find it very bothersome to tell the truth on the other hand I will surely come again again.

  29. This is really interesting, You’re a very skilled blogger. I’ve joined your feed and look forward to seeking more of your magnificent post. Also, I’ve shared your site in my social networks!

  30. I’m often to blogging and i really appreciate your content. The article has actually peaks my interest. I’m going to bookmark your web site and maintain checking for brand spanking new information.

  31. naturally like your web site however you need to take a look at the spelling on several of your posts. A number of them are rife with spelling problems and I find it very bothersome to tell the truth on the other hand I will surely come again again.

  32. Một dàn karaoke hay đúng chuẩn hiện nay sẽ bao gồm các thiết bị như: loa karaoke, loa sub, amply karaoke, micro karaoke, đầu karaoke. Nếu muốn dàn âm thanh …

  33. You’re so awesome! I don’t believe I have read a single thing like that before. So great to find someone with some original thoughts on this topic. Really.. thank you for starting this up. This website is something that is needed on the internet, someone with a little originality!

  34. I’m often to blogging and i really appreciate your content. The article has actually peaks my interest. I’m going to bookmark your web site and maintain checking for brand spanking new information.

  35. Tổng Hợp Những Mẫu Dàn Karaoke Chính Hãng Bán Chạy Nhất Với Mức Giá Cực Kỳ Tốt. Mang Tới Chất Lượng Âm Thanh Vượt Trội, Đổi Mới Trong 15 Ngày, Hỗ Trợ Kỹ Thuật…

  36. You’re so awesome! I don’t believe I have read a single thing like that before. So great to find someone with some original thoughts on this topic. Really.. thank you for starting this up. This website is something that is needed on the internet, someone with a little originality!

  37. naturally like your web site however you need to take a look at the spelling on several of your posts. A number of them are rife with spelling problems and I find it very bothersome to tell the truth on the other hand I will surely come again again.

  38. You’re so awesome! I don’t believe I have read a single thing like that before. So great to find someone with some original thoughts on this topic. Really.. thank you for starting this up. This website is something that is needed on the internet, someone with a little originality!

  39. I’m often to blogging and i really appreciate your content. The article has actually peaks my interest. I’m going to bookmark your web site and maintain checking for brand spanking new information.

  40. naturally like your web site however you need to take a look at the spelling on several of your posts. A number of them are rife with spelling problems and I find it very bothersome to tell the truth on the other hand I will surely come again again.

  41. “Güvenlik soruşturması ve arşiv mesafeştırmasında kişinin ortamında bulunduğu hava, ikamet adresi ve gerçekten eğleşme etmiş olduğu bulunak dikkate alınarak;AYM’nin silme hükümı verildiği tam güvenlik soruşturması devam fail kişilerin bu soruşturmasının sonlandırılması gerekirdi. Bu şekilde hatimelanmayan eşhas bile silme davası açarak hakkını kanuni olarak arayabilir.Web sitemizdeki tüm makale ve dâhileriklerin telif hakkı Kadim Dostluk ve Danışmanlığa aittir. Tüm makaleler pay sahipliğinin tescili amacıyla elektronik imzalı çağ damgalıdır.Güvenlik soruşturması ve belgelik aralıkştırması kamuda çkızılışmak talip her insanın geçmesi müstelzim bir uygulamadır. Biryoğun kişinin tasa ettiği güvenlik istifhamşturması hakkında sorulara cevap vereceğiz. Bugün tutum hukuku avukatı Umur Saika’a “Güvenlik soruşturması ve arşiv çatlakştırması nedir? Nelere Fallır?

  42. Dàn karaoke phổ biến hiện nay gồm 4 thành phần: loa, amply, đầu karaoke, micro. Một dàn karaoke kiểu mới cũng có đủ các thành phần loa, đầu đọc, micro nhưng lại …

  43. This is really interesting, You’re a very skilled blogger. I’ve joined your feed and look forward to seeking more of your magnificent post. Also, I’ve shared your site in my social networks!

  44. naturally like your web site however you need to take a look at the spelling on several of your posts. A number of them are rife with spelling problems and I find it very bothersome to tell the truth on the other hand I will surely come again again.

  45. You’re so awesome! I don’t believe I have read a single thing like that before. So great to find someone with some original thoughts on this topic. Really.. thank you for starting this up. This website is something that is needed on the internet, someone with a little originality!

  46. naturally like your web site however you need to take a look at the spelling on several of your posts. A number of them are rife with spelling problems and I find it very bothersome to tell the truth on the other hand I will surely come again again.

  47. Taşıma süreçleri kaskolu bir şekilde yapılmaktadır. Herhangi oluşabilecek taşıma probleminde şirketimiz sorumludur. Yol Yardım Çekici Hizmeti esnasında anlaşmalı taksilerimiz ile yolcu taşıma hizmeti vermekteyiz. Marmaris Oto Kurtarma hizmetimiz 7/24 çalışmaktadır. Oto Kurtarma 10 yılı aşkın süredir Muğla Marmaris’de oto çekicilik ve yol yardım hizmetleri vermektedir. Sahip olduğu tam teşekküllü araçlarıyla hasarlı araçları, otomatik şanzumana sahip araçları özel aparatlarla hiçbir zarar vermeden çekici ve kurtarma falliyeti vermektedir. Kayar kasalı araçlar ve özel aparatlar sayesinde otomatik vitesli, hasarlı ve kazalı araçlar hiç zarar görmeden gidecekleri yere taşınabilmektedir.

  48. Natürlich gefällt mir Ihre Website, aber Sie sollten sich mal um die Rechtschreibung einiger Ihrer Beiträge kümmern. Eine Reihe von ihnen sind voll von Rechtschreibproblemen und ich finde es sehr lästig, um die Wahrheit zu sagen, auf der anderen Seite werde ich sicherlich wieder kommen.

  49. I’m often to blogging and i really appreciate your content. The article has actually peaks my interest. I’m going to bookmark your web site and maintain checking for brand spanking new information.

  50. naturally like your web site however you need to take a look at the spelling on several of your posts. A number of them are rife with spelling problems and I find it very bothersome to tell the truth on the other hand I will surely come again again.

  51. I’m often to blogging and i really appreciate your content. The article has actually peaks my interest. I’m going to bookmark your web site and maintain checking for brand spanking new information.

  52. naturally like your web site however you need to take a look at the spelling on several of your posts. A number of them are rife with spelling problems and I find it very bothersome to tell the truth on the other hand I will surely come again again.

  53. I like being offered respect in order to give it back., so if you are rude, don’t bother entering my room. Candy, neck kisses and lipstick are cliche but are a girl’s best friend and I am not an exception!

  54. Thương hiệu dòng loa CAVS Audio có xuất xứ từ một trong những cường quốc về công nghệ , không ai khác Hoa Kỳ ( America ) , là công ty hoạt động trong lĩnh vực …

  55. This is really interesting, You’re a very skilled blogger. I’ve joined your feed and look forward to seeking more of your magnificent post. Also, I’ve shared your site in my social networks!

  56. JBL là một công ty sản xuất thiết bị âm thanh được James Bullough Lansing thành lập năm 1946 và hiện thuộc sở hữu của Harman International. Loa JBL chính hãng …

  57. naturally like your web site however you need to take a look at the spelling on several of your posts. A number of them are rife with spelling problems and I find it very bothersome to tell the truth on the other hand I will surely come again again.

  58. This is really interesting, You’re a very skilled blogger. I’ve joined your feed and look forward to seeking more of your magnificent post. Also, I’ve shared your site in my social networks!

  59. SMM-THAILAND เว็บโปรแกรมเพิ่มยอดไลท์+ยอดวิว อันดับ #1 ในประเทศไทย SMM-THAILAND เป็นเว็บไซต์ระบบโปรแกรมเพิ่มยอดไลค์แบบไม่ต้องใช้โทเคน ไม่ใช่เว็บแลกไลค์ไม่ต้องใช่รหัสผ่านหรือข้อมูลส่วนตัว ปลอดภัย 100% ตัวช่วยเพิ่มความน่าเชื่อถือให้โซเชียลมีเดียของคุณ ครบจบทุกบริการ ไม่ต้องลงโฆษาเพื่อเพิ่มยอดไลค์ , ไม่ต้องจ่ายเงินแพงกว่า รวดเร็วทำงานด้วยระบบอัตโนมัติ พร้อมมีระบบคืนเงินสำหรับรายการที่ผิดพลาด ประหยัดเวลาในการจัดการบัญชีโซเชียลของคุณในแผงเดียว ที่ซึ่งผู้คนซื้อบริการ SMM เช่น การจัดการโฆษณา Facebook, Instagram, YouTube, Twitter, Soundcloud, โฆษณาเว็บไซต์ และอื่นๆ อีกมากมาย! https://smm-thailand.com/

  60. ร้านแอร์ระยองบริการจำหน่ายติดตั้งแอร์บ้าน ซ่อมแอร์บ้าน ย้ายแอร์บ้าน ล้างแอร์บ้าน ราคาเป็นกันเอง ให้บริการในเขตพื้นที่ อำเภอเมืองระยองบริการซื่อสัตย์ เป็นกันเอง ใส่ใจลูกค้า ไม่ทิ้งงาน ราคาย่อมเยาว์ บริการดี ด้วยช่างมืออาชีพ พร้อมบริการหลังการขาย ติดต่อเรียกใช้บริการช่างแอร์ระยอง ล้างแอร์บ้านระยอง ช่างแอร์บ้านเมืองระยอง ซ่อมแอร์ราคาถูก ซ่อมแอร์บ้านทุกอาการเสีย ติดตั้งแอร์บ้านเริ่มต้น2500 บาท ติดตั้งแอร์บ้านระยอง https://www.ร้านแอร์ระยอง.com/

  61. Google konum ekleme işletmelerin potansiyel müşterilere ulaşması ve arama sonuçlarında kolay şekilde görüntülenmesi için büyük önem taşıyor. Üstelik navigasyon işlemleri için de önemli olan konum eklemeyi basit şekilde gerçekleştirebilirsiniz.

  62. Görüntülü arama ile gerçekleşen görüntülü konuşma, aradığınız kişiyle sesli ve görüntülü olarak konuşabilmenizi sağlar. Bu sayede uzaklık, uzun mesafe gibi kavramlar önemini yitirmektedir.

  63. naturally like your web site however you need to take a look at the spelling on several of your posts. A number of them are rife with spelling problems and I find it very bothersome to tell the truth on the other hand I will surely come again again.

  64. naturally like your web site however you need to take a look at the spelling on several of your posts. A number of them are rife with spelling problems and I find it very bothersome to tell the truth on the other hand I will surely come again again.

  65. I’m often to blogging and i really appreciate your content. The article has actually peaks my interest. I’m going to bookmark your web site and maintain checking for brand spanking new information.

  66. Panalobet Casino is the online casino brand recognized by senior players as the first and only named online casino. Players from the Philippines are all highly recommended. The customer service is highly respected by many players. Panalobet Casino focuses on solving all the incurable diseases of 17 players online at any time, 24 hours a day, any time. This is a feature that many senior players like very much. Most casino players have different game times. Players from all walks of life have everything. Of course, there are players who play during the day, finish at noon, and play in the middle of the night. The 24-hour online live service is very important, and it is the key to make it stand out compared to other competing platforms.

  67. I’m often to blogging and i really appreciate your content. The article has actually peaks my interest. I’m going to bookmark your web site and maintain checking for brand spanking new information.

  68. You’re so awesome! I don’t believe I have read a single thing like that before. So great to find someone with some original thoughts on this topic. Really.. thank you for starting this up. This website is something that is needed on the internet, someone with a little originality!

  69. Bộ dàn karaoke là sự tổng hợp của các thiết bị âm thanh chuyên dụng chủ yếu để sử dụng và phục vụ cho những người có nhu cầu, mục đích giải trí hát karaoke.

  70. LocAsk – India’s local search engine, Locask, lets you easily find the lowest prices on airfare, hotel rooms, theatre tickets, subway rides, and taxi rides, as well as shop for these items online.

  71. It is possible to buy YouTube subscribers through a variety of methods. You can purchase these subscribers through social media or through PayPal. Buying YouTube subscribers can improve the effects of your channel and make it look more natural. But be careful: you have to ensure that you’re getting real subscribers. This is because YouTube’s algorithm is able to spot fake subscribers. You’ll need to ensure that you’re getting genuine YouTube users who will not unsubscribe. The best way to increase your subscribers is to create quality content and attract a diverse audience. When you have great content and people who are interested in it, they’ll pay attention to it and will even donate to crowdfunding campaigns or buy merchandise.

  72. Đối với hệ thống âm thanh này, Quý khách sẽ sử dụng các dòng loa karaoke Bose, BMB hay loa JBL và Amply karaoke Jarguar, Peavey… thay vì dòng amply thông báo …

  73. JBL là một trong những thương hiệu loa di động nổi tiếng.được các tín đồ âm thanh tin tưởng lựa chọn. Mẫu loa JBL thường có thiết kế nhỏ gọn, năng động, …

  74. naturally like your web site however you need to take a look at the spelling on several of your posts. A number of them are rife with spelling problems and I find it very bothersome to tell the truth on the other hand I will surely come again again.

  75. Một điểm đặc biệt của loa di động Monster Party Box khiến chiếc loa nhiều người yếu thích, đó là nút nhấn chọn ghi lại bài giảng, lời ca tiếng nhạc rất tiện. Thay vì bạn thiết lập hệ thống thu rườm rà khó sử dụng thì chỉ cần cắm usb thẻ nhớ vào rồi nhấn record là xong. Diễn giả hay ca sỹ cứ hát cứ nói, phần thu âm loa đảm nhiệm luôn.

  76. I’m often to blogging and i really appreciate your content. The article has actually peaks my interest. I’m going to bookmark your web site and maintain checking for brand spanking new information.

  77. Dàn karaoke phổ biến hiện nay gồm 4 thành phần: loa, amply, đầu karaoke, micro. Một dàn karaoke kiểu mới cũng có đủ các thành phần loa, đầu đọc, micro nhưng lại …

  78. studio consulenze aziendali, piano nazionale ripresa, resilienza, sovvenzioni europee, consulenza aziendale organizzativa, Ivrea, studio consulenza, studio consulenze aziendali, studio consulenze, gare mepa, gare pubbliche, gare private, finanziamento startup, preventivazione, contabilità. lavori pubblici, lavori privati, attestazione soa, attestazione qualità, polizze fidejussorie, polizze assicurative, servizi finanziari imprese, agenzia interinale, lavoro, noleggi a lungo termine, corsi aziende, servizi di medico competente, responsabile esterno della sicurezza, welfare Aziendale, realizzazione siti web, strategia impresa, programmi gestionali impresa, energia fonti alternative, fornitura energia, edilizia residenziale, edilizia industriale, edilizia pubblica, edilizia privata, restauri conservativi, strade, fognature, acquedotti, opere in cemento armato, impiantistica TLC, impiantistica VoIP, ponti radio, impianto civile, impianti industriali, impianti elettrici, impianti speciali, impianti meccanici, climatizzazione, impianti antincendio, estinzione incendio, carpenterie metalliche, carpenterie leggere, carpenterie pesanti, pulizie impianti industriali, produzione energia fonti alternative, trivellazioni, perforazioni speciali, opere sottosuolo, logistica, movimentazione apparecchi sollevamento, trasporto, opere infissi, infissi alluminio, infissi legno, infissi alluminio, infissi pvc, gestione, manutenzione del verde, ricerca, predisposizione, partners, fornitori, gestione aziendale, gestione pratiche, business plans, servizi finanziari, somministrazione lavoro, formazione, sicurezza, noleggio, consultant, consulente lavoro

  79. You’re so awesome! I don’t believe I have read a single thing like that before. So great to find someone with some original thoughts on this topic. Really.. thank you for starting this up. This website is something that is needed on the internet, someone with a little originality!

  80. JBL là thương hiệu loa đến từ Mỹ với những công nghệ sản xuất hiện đại bậc nhất hiện nay, dòng loa này chi phục người dùng bởi sự hoàn hảo từ âm thanh, các …