What the A7 being 64-bit Means for The Competition

Samsung declared that it too will follow in Apple’s footsteps and embrace 64-bit processor designs in their products. I have no doubt that Qualcomm and Nvidia will catch up with equally impressive 64-bit designs. That being said, Qualcomm and Nvidia do not have what Apple does, an operating system.

Although Qualcomm and Nvidia will make exceptional processors, the question remains as to whether Google will do what needs to be done to transition Android to 64-bit.

When I first saw that the A7 was 64-bit my first thoughts were about what this means for the competition. More specifically I started thinking about what this means for Android.

Now to clarify there is a port of Android that exists that is 64 -bit. It happens to be a port of Android that Intel has developed running on their own 64-bit x86 architecture. That said, this implementation is designed for more desktop device than for mobile. Intel’s smartphone chips are not yet 64-bit. But an interesting point to this competitive story is that Intel has the expertise already to take Android to 64-bit in mobile.

There are two things to understand about this from a competitive picture. The first is that the transition to 64-bit alone is not the only contributor to performance upside. The 64-bit architecture Apple has adopted and modified is an updated version of the ARMv7 architecture called ARMv8. There are a number of optimizations ARM has included that makes ARMv8 a much more enhanced architecture than ARMv7. Efficiencies have been added that are key to the overall story. The fact that it is 64-bits is just part of the story. This is simply a more efficient new architecture built on a 64-bit framework.

Not all companies are like Apple. Apple designs their own chips solely for their own purposes. This is why they can take liberties in the design process that competitors can’t.

Competitors need to spend the lengthy time going through the ARM validation process for all their chips. Competitors also work to tune the software running on their chips but this also takes time, especially with Android, when you have to optimize for many different OS configurations.

There is no question the competition will go 64-bit but will the platform benefit? From what I see, Google wants to go downstream with Android not upstream. They are trying to commoditize computing not do something unique with it.

On Android games will benefit greatly from 64-bit. But I am not sure the rest of the developer ecosystem is trying to push the envelope. I could be wrong but we will have to wait and see. Regardless, Apple can take advantage of every bit of 64-bit computing. I’m not sure I can say the same about the competition.

The biggest blow to the competition will be the iPad. The iPad going 64-bit has the potential to transform the tablet in ways not yet imagined.

Apple’s lead time over competitors in this is significant. It will be at least a year before we see products on the market. Apple will have developers already established and entrenched.

I’ll end again by restating a point. Apple is trying to do something unique with computing. Google is not. The A7 is a prime example of this and there will be many fruits from this effort.

For a bit deeper dive on just some of the uniqueness of the A7 read this article on the role of the A7 with the Touch ID.

Published by

Ben Bajarin

Ben Bajarin is a Principal Analyst and the head of primary research at Creative Strategies, Inc - An industry analysis, market intelligence and research firm located in Silicon Valley. His primary focus is consumer technology and market trend research and he is responsible for studying over 30 countries. Full Bio

17 thoughts on “What the A7 being 64-bit Means for The Competition”

  1. Here are a few things to note. Some should be obvious, but that doesn’t mean everyone notices…

    (a) Due to its underlying Dalvik/Java VM underpinnings, Android apps won’t benefit as much from 64-bit as the kernel. It’s possible, though not likely, that Java byte code (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Java_bytecode ) has been revised in format since my Java days. If not, Java source effectively compiles into assembly for a virtual 8-bit processor.

    The JIT (Just In Time) compiler for 64-bit Android will still end up interpreting the IR for Dalvik one byte at a time. So launch times will not improve because the compiler won’t be able to do much at 64-bits. Only when the compiled code is run will Android apps see any benefit. In fact, compilation time may increase considerably because compiling 8-bit assembly into something that can take advantage of 64-bit requires significantly more work for more than just a dumb translation. That kind of heavy analysis is best done directly from the source into 64-bit native code; too much information is lost by moving from source code to 8-bit IR, then trying to move back to 64-bit.

    Meanwhile, you can optimize the snot (TM) out of the kernel, so all those system calls will blaze, but the application that makes the system calls will take a step backward for a while.

    Native Android applications is the way to go for games and anything that can take advantage of a 64-bit processor.

    (b) This means Android apps will fracture a bit. Ideally you would want apps that take advantage of your platform, especially for games, but not all Android devices use the same processor, or instruction set. So, you’ll have binaries designed specifically for, say, Exynos-64, that don’t run on 32-bit ARM, OR you’ll need a “fat” binary executable format that allows you to put different native versions, plus a “straight” Dalvik variant into the same file.

    I do believe Android developers will try to push the envelope, but the increase in cost must be paid by someone. The Android market will be fragmented, not just by screen size and I/O capabilities, but by 32/64 bitness and processor-specifics, unless Google or someone quickly imposes a “standard” for how a 64-bit Android implementation should operate.

    (c) Intel has been trying to become power-competitive with ARM at 32-bit, and hasn’t quite caught up yet. Competing at 64-bit for the mobile space will move the finish line down the road several months.

    (d) I believe Apple is going for the jugular here. Another article said that Apple has stabbed Microsoft in the heart. Well…

    iPad with a 64-bit processor is powerful enough to be “desktop class”, just as Schiller(?) mentioned. Apple also has been pushing OpenCL heavily, which brings gigaFLOPS of computing power to even the iPhone and iPad GPU’s. Serious developers have noticed that Apple made its task scheduler capable of scheduling tasks on the GPU and CPU simultaneously (Grand Central Dispatch). Apple also has blazed a new trail by promoting more GPU streaming processors at lower frequencies to get more work done, by more processes, with lower power consumption. This is not accidental. They recently hired on a significant number of ex-ATI GPGPU guys to figure out how they can leapfrog the industry.

    I believe Apple is removing any excuse for not developing full-bodied enterprise applications for iOS. Measured in gigaFLOPS, the A7 will legitimately have “desktop class” performance. If the iPad is a quad-core CPU or, better, ends up with 4x or more the GPU resources, especially if Apple announces OpenCL support for iOS, it will be obvious what they’re doing. Such an iPad would significantly outperform any “desktop” computer running enterprise applications.

    For that matter, I find it interesting that Apple, as a partner with Intel in developing Thunderbolt, is the only company who can implement it for a non-Intel processor…well, without getting Intel’s over-my-dead-body blessing. Has anyone else noticed that Thunderbolt can be used as a 20Gbps networking connection, with the proper drivers? Now, why do you need 6 Thunderbolt connections on a Mac Pro?

    (e) If Apple were only concerned about gaming performance, increasing GPU performance would have been a huge win…far bigger than going 64-bit. Don’t underestimate just how much work they had to do to go 64-bit. It was not “Oh crap…we’ve got to have something to brag about…let’s make the processor 64-bit”. Apple had to develop a power-efficient ARMv8 64-bit processor atop their Swift work, 2 years in advance of ARM releasing the ARM A57, host all the work necessary to get LLVM compiling, linking and debugging on their new processor, upgrade XCode’s infrastructure, port all of iOS (which is similar to OS X, but it’s definitely NOT OS X for x86), upgrade all of their frameworks and base apps to 64-bit and QA the whole lot in secrecy. I wouldn’t be surprised if they’ve been working on this for at least 3 years already.

    They are betting the farm on all of this 64-bit stuff working. If it’s broken, their flagship model of their flagship product (iPhone) is screwed up. This is a HUGE gamble! If iPad ships 64-bit too, they will have gambled with their two biggest products. They aren’t doing this JUST for bragging rights.

    (f) If this works, they will have the most powerful gaming platform around, but they could’ve gotten there with a strengthened GPU for much less risk, but a win here gives them the most powerful enterprise computing platform. That’s what 64-bit CPU buys them. All they need is enterprise apps. They’ve got security, performance, all the base apps (word processing – Pages, Spreadsheet – Numbers, presentation – KeyNote), a huge well-trained user base, tons of developers, and a high-performance workstation/server platform that, with Haswell-EP, will be the most powerful back end around, bar none…Apple uber alles… mobile to home gaming and entertainment to enterprise, alongside a single, consistent ecosystem.

    Watch for Apple to push its way into the enterprise at the high end, while soft-driving into entertainment and gaming.

    1. Really good comment Bill. As I pointed out Intel ported their x86 version to 64-bit. This is mostly due to some demand from customers for dual boot on PCs (a bad idea in my opinion). But do you think there are any advantages to 64-bit on x86 vs ARM?

      1. Ben,

        x86 is inherently CISC vs. ARM’s RISC, the executive summary being that x86-64 instructions require considerably more power to execute, but are also dramatically more powerful. For example, x86-64 has many VLIW-like instructions (SIMD, AVX and a number of things that make virtualization quicker than you would expect) that are 128-bits or even 256-bits wide. You can do a lot more with Intel’s 64-bit, even with the Atom’s, but they’re just catching up on power consumption for 32-bit. They’ll need another process node or two to seriously compete at 64-bit. Too much legacy stuff. Even the latest 64-bit Xeons that just came out can run 16-bit binaries and, in many environments, always bootstrap in 16-bit code. Then, there’s all the old interrupt and segment management stuff…

        The major advantages for x86-64 are three-fold: (1) Intel is leading the way on process nodes; 10nm here they come; (2) there’s a huge body of code that runs natively on x86 whether 16-bit, 32-bit or 64-bit; (3) Intel carries a lot of cruft, but they adapt quickly; for example, those VLIW instructions approach the efficiency of a GPU when coded properly, and with the Intel HD 5000, they’re exceptional at reaping synergy from having both CPU and GPU on the same die. Intel’s weakness is the unwillingness/inability to discard the legacy stuff, much as you mentioned their retention of dual-boot capability. “Look! My tablet runs Android…and MS-DOS…and Windows 3.1…and…”

    2. Anyone who is interested in this topic should visit AnandTech’s iPhone 5s review. Anand Lai Shimpi confirms that the A7 is a true powerhouse, clocking in at 6.5 GigaFLOPS in one benchmark.

      Among other things, he also seems to agree that an A7 or even A8-based MacBook Air is unlikely. Barring anti-trust issues, I would expect Apple to buy Intel rather than compete with them.

      Also note that the A7 eviscerates Intel’s Atom Bay Trail in certain benchmarks, and it’s still superior in power consumption. As I stated, Intel has claimed 32-bit victory for a brief, happy moment. Apple just moved the finish line.

      Anand equates the A7 to a Core2 Duo (think MacBook Pro in 2008), and that’s just the CPU. The GPU also seems to be “desktop caliber.” Anand estimates 76 GigaFLOPS for the GPU of the A7.

      Compare it at 80 GigaFLOPS and it’s comparable to a number of “business” laptops and some business desktops. What you need is apps that boldly apply that raw compute power toward enterprise applications. A Core2 Duo E6600 measures 38 GigaFLOPS, and is a 64-bit x86 processor running at 2.4GHz nominal. In 2006, that was the makings of a pretty nice computer (see http://ark.intel.com/products/27250/Intel-Core2-Duo-Processor-E6600-(4M-Cache-2_40-GHz-1066-MHz-FSB) )

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